SQL Server - SQL Table Basics - Data Types

SQL Server Data Precision
BIT Integer: 0 or 1
TINYINT Positive Integer 0 -> 255
SMALLINT Signed Integer -32,768 -> 32,767
INT Signed Integer -2^31 -> 2^31-1
BIGINT Signed Integer -2^63 -> 2^63-1
REAL Floating precision -1.79E + 308 -> 1.79E + 308
FLOAT Floating precision -3.40E + 38 -> 3.40E + 38
MONEY 4 decimal places, -2^63/10000 -> 2^63-1/10000
SMALLMONEY 4 decimal places, -214,748.3648 -> 214,748.3647
DECIMAL Fixed precision -10^38 + 1 -> 10^38 - 1
NUMERIC Fixed precision -10^38 + 1 -> 10^38 - 1
DATETIME Date+Time 1753-01-01 -> 9999-12-31, accuracy of 3.33 ms
SMALLDATETIME Date+Time 1900-01-01 -> 2079-06-06, accuracy of one minute
CHARn Fixed-length non-Unicode string to 8,000 characters
NCHARn Fixed-length Unicode string to 4,000 characters
VARCHARn Variable-length non-Unicode string to 8,000 characters
NVARCHARn Variable-length Unicode string to 4,000 characters
TEXT Variable-length non-Unicode string to 2,147,483,647 characters
NTEXT Variable-length Unicode string to 1,073,741,823 characters
BINARY Fixed-length binary data up to 8,000 characters
VARBINARY Variable-length binary data up to 8,000 characters
IMAGE Variable-length binary data up to 2,147,483,647 characters 

If you are working in a heterogeneous database environment an environment that employs multiple DBMS vendor solutions you should consider using data types that are common to different vendors in your design.